For a more efficient fuel supply an advanced direct injection system has been developed, which is used in most modern gasoline engines. Direct injection implies a direct injection of the fuel mixture into the cylinders, bypassing the fuel manifold. Today it is one of the most advanced fuel supply systems. And in order for you to be able to get rid of your old car and stay in the black, was invented service recycling cars: https://scrapcar.cash.
The system was developed by the French engineer L. Levasseur, and its first prototype was installed in an aircraft engine V8. The first automotive direct fuel system was designed in 1952 by Bosch and was used on the then quite famous Gutbrod and Goliath cars.
In 1996, the GDI direct fuel injection system was introduced, which was installed on four-cylinder engines in Mitsubishi cars. In 1998, Toyota introduced its own development, the D4 system.
A year later, another system called IDE was introduced by Renault. Volkswagen’s FSI system was launched on the market at the beginning of 2000.
Nowadays such fuel systems are produced by world known automobile conglomerates such as Volkswagen, Audi, Infiniti, BMW, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, Ford.
This type of system reduces fuel costs by 15-18% and lowers exhaust emissions.
The Direct Injection System Structure
The construction of the direct fuel injection system consists of a fuel pump (HPI), injection ramp, fuel mixture pressure regulating mechanism, a set of sensors (high pressure sensors, inlet sensors), safety valve, injectors, control unit.
Fuel pump (HPP)
High pressure pump is designed for realization of the main function – fuel supply through the ramp to the injectors under high operating pressure in the range from 3 to 11 MPa to provide continuous operation of the internal combustion engine. The pump design may include one or more plungers, driven by a camshaft. Read more about the fuel injection pump here…
The fuel rail is used to distribute the fuel evenly over the injectors and prevent variations in the working pressure in the fuel circuit itself.
The valve is mounted on the fuel rail and is designed to protect the fuel system from excessively high pressure at the limit values, which occurs due to a significant expansion of the fuel mixture.
The purpose of the pressure regulator is to ensure precise fuel metering by the pump taking into account the capacity of the fuel injectors. The regulator is installed inside the pump.
Pressure gauge (high pressure)
This type of sensor is used for measuring operating pressure of the vehicle in the ramp. Based on the signals received from the sensor, the pressure changes in the ramp.
The main function of the injector is to provide injection of the fuel feed into the combustion chamber with further formation of FAM.
Traditionally, the control mechanism of a direct fuel system consists of a control unit, input sensors and execution mechanisms.
Like other fuel systems, this system is equipped with additional sensors – air temperature, engine temperature, coolant temperature, air flow, camshaft position, etc.
How the direct injection system works
Direct injection system can provide three ways of fuel mixture formation – homogeneous (homogeneous), stratified and stoichiometric homogeneous (flammable).
Such capabilities in mixture formation allow maximum efficiency in the use of fuel, due to which the economy and environmental friendliness of the engine is ensured while increasing the dynamic characteristics of the power unit.